Hindi and Urdu: Two different languages or mere different dialects?
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Hindi is the official language of India and even Urdu holds a lot of importance in the country where innumerous people speak Urdu. Looking into the two languages from linguistic point of view, it is evident that they are two different dialects when we study the Hindustani language. Thus, Hindi and Urdu are nothing else but standardized dialects of a pluricentric Hindustani language.
There have been many controversies over Urdu – Hindi language separations. The spoken dialect called Kharhiboli was merged with the Urdu language eventually after 12th century. If it is seen linguistically, no dispute or controversies can be seen between the two languages. The separation of the two languages is only politically and those who advocate this difference try to convince the world saying that Urdu used Perso- Arabic script while Hindi employs Devanagari script. Similarly, Urdu has its consonants taken from the Persian script and even the vocabulary source is borrowed.
However, the experts feel that these differences are not enough to distinguish the two languages from one another, at least as far as the linguistic perspective is concerned. If you see practically, both the languages are similar vocabulary, which is more or less common with Persian script. Definitely, Hindi borrows Sanskrit words more in its dialect while Urdu remains restricted to Persian words.
The north Indian vernacular insists that the difference between the two languages is not worthwhile. This is even more significant for people whose vocabulary is not very strong. This can be clearer with the description of grammar of both the languages.
Urdu remains the standardized Hindustani form. One has to realize that great Urdu poets of the 19th century like Mirza Ghalib and Mir too used Hindi and Urdu both the languages in their great works. During that era the british officials considered Urdu only as a style of writing and it was not given the status of a language. Later Hindustani language got two different dialects, Hindi and Urdu with Hyderabad, Lucknow, Delhi and Aligarh being the major centers to learn Urdu literally.
It is interesting that in Delhi the language spoken can be called both Hindi as well as Urdu. The distinction is only at the level of its script. One should remember that if Devnagri script is employed in a language, it is Urdu language while otherwise with Perso-Arabic script, the language becomes Urdu. Since after independence, there has been a conglomeration of the vocabulary of the people residing in Delhi, the concept of colloquial words is no longer evident in the language spoken. Thus, the outcome is a Persianized and Sanskitized form of language which can be called both Hindi as well as Urdu.
Basically Urdu and Hindi are used in a neutralized format with non standard dialects in most parts of Pakistan and India and hence the neutralized form of the language has been taken over by print and broadcast media as well. Thus, Hindustani or Hindi- Urdu as it is popularly known as has two different dialects which the respective languages offer.