9 points you wanted to know about Bengali(Bangla) Script

1.Bengali alphabet called Bangla horof is the writing system for the Bengali language.
2. Bengali script with variations is shared by Assamese.
3. Bengali alphabet is the basis for Meitei, Bishnupriya Manipuri, Kokborok, Garo and Mundari alphabets.
4.Bengali script has also been used to write the Sanskrit language in Eastern India.
5.Bengali is written from left to right
6. Bengali does not have distinct letter cases.
7, Bengali is recognizable by a distinctive horizontal line running along the tops of the letters that links them together
8. The Bengali script has a total of 11 vowel and 36 consonant s
9.. Each of vowel letter is called a স্বরবর্ণ shôrobôrno “vowel letter” and consonant letter is called ব্যঞ্জনবর্ণ bênjonbôrno “consonant letter”.

Source: http://www.amarbarnamala.org/

3 Ways to Improve your Gujarati Vocabulary

Article written by Indianscripts,  Language Translation Provider (www.indianscripts.com) who can be contacted at info@indianscripts.com

Guajarati is a beautiful language and a mention of Guajarati brings alive the memories of Mahatma Gandhi and his famous “Vaishno Vachan”. This Indo- Aryan language has its derivation from Western Rajasthani and is spoken in not only the state of Gujarat but also in Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.

One can easily divide Gujarati as Old Gujarati, Middle Gujarati and Modern Gujarati, which is what the present world is speaking. If you too have recently joined the Guajarati fan club and want to improve your vocabulary of the language, then this article would turn out to be the best source for sure.

When we talk about Modern Gujarati, the basic categories that we should know include tadbhav, tatsam and loan words.

Tatsam: Same

If you look at the meaning of Tatsam literally, it means “same as that.” We should remember that Sanskrit language transformed in Indo Aryan of Middle age eventually. Thus, you will find many words that resemble the Sanskrit words. They are as it is employed in Gujarati and mean the same thing as well. In fact, Gujarati vocabulary is enriched by such words which are technical and formal in nature. For instance, lekhak which means writer remains lakhnār and word vijetā meaning winner stays jītnār in Gujarati. In order to recognize such words, you can see the markings and inflections on top of them.

Tadbhav: Nature of that

Gujarati has descended from the ancient Indian language Sanskrit and thus in Tadbhav category of words; one may find words of Sanskrit origin. Thus, these words have over the time transformed to provide people with the same character as that of modern Indo- Aryan language of modern times.

The basic difference between the Tatsam and Tadbhav words is that while the earlier are technical and formal, latter are words that may be used every day and thus are non- technical. To learn the spoken vernacular of Gujarati, these words are quite essential.

One should however remember that while speaking Gujarati, Tatsam and Tadbhav can be employed simultaneously.

Videśī Words: Loan Words

The above mentioned two categories are entirely different from this one which consists of words of foreign origin including, English, Persian, Arabic, Turkish and Portuguese. Since India had Muslim rule for quite some time and they were a Persian speaking clad, the Indian languages had seen employment of many such words. Gujarati too could not escape conjugation of these words and thus there are many etymologically foreign words called loan words in Gujarati language.

Article written by Indianscripts,  Language Translation Provider (www.indianscripts.com) who can be contacted at info@indianscripts.com

The loan words were eventually indigenized and the output are terms like dāvo which means claim, natījo meaning result, fāydo  meaning benefit, and hamlo which means attack. It is interesting to note that all above mentioned words have a masculine gender while there are words which are neutral as well, e.g., khānũ – compartment.

Over the years times have seen a big contrast in everything and languages do not lag behind. The same holds true for Gujarati language too and thus it is essential for any Gujarati lover to learn the vocabulary first to improvise the language.

Article written by Indianscripts,  Language Translation Provider (www.indianscripts.com) who can be contacted at info@indianscripts.com

Hindi Literature in different times

The Hindi language descends from the classical Sanskrit language. Though there may be seen some other language influences over it as well, which includes Arabic, Turkish, Dravidian, Farsi, English and Portuguese. The expression made in Hindi language cannot be competed and the way emotions can be conveyed through simplicity in Hindi, no other language can be so rational and exact.

Hindi literary scene involves lots of verses and overall has an oral expression. The initial hindi prose works were written by Devaki Nandan Khatri and was a fantasy novel called Chandrakanta. Before that, the literary works were generally recited in the form of poetry or songs. This is the reason why there are no major records of earlier works. However non-Hindi speakers can get a taste through English to Hindi translation. There are many literary translations available and  www.indianscripts.com is one of India’s leading translation providers from English into Hindi.

Bhakti Kaal

The medieval times were one of the best for Hindi literature. The poets used Avadhi and Brij Bhasha in their compositions as dialects and one can experience a lot of Bhakti compositions during this period. There used to be long poems, mainly consisted of epics. The two schools during this time: Nirguna School, which does not believed in the form of God and the Saguna School, which worshipped the various incarnations of Vishnu, both were at their best.

RitiKavya Kaal (Modern Period)

This was also known as Ritismarga Kavya period and forms a major element of Hindi literature. This modern era in Hindi literature developed with British, Maratha and Afghans ruling the Central India. Initially, the learned spoke only Braj and Avadhi which too lost their prestige over a period of time. The main language used for literature became Kari and it was during 18th century that some of the greatest literature was developed, eg, Gangabhatt’s Mahima, Ramprasad Niranjani’s Yogavashishtha, Jatmal’s Gorabadal and the likes of Mandovar Ka Varnan.

Once the East India Company incepted Calcutta’s Fort William College, there was no limit to the development that Hindi language and literature saw. The college’s president ensured that enough books were written in Urdu and Hindi languages and thus he hired professors especially for the same. Some of the examples of books written there include Munshi Inshallah Khan’s Rani Ketaki Ki Kahani, Sadasukhlal’s Sukhsagar, Sadal Mishra’s Naasiketopaakhyan and Lallolal’s Premsagar.

It is clear in Indian history that this was the era of general public speaking Hindustani. The learned Muslims used Urdu and the educated Hindus used Khadiboli to distinguish themselves from the rest. The only difference between the two was that Khadiboli included Sanskrit vocabulary while Urdu has Persian dominated vocabulary.

Bhartendu Harishchand and Dayanand Saraswati popularized Sahityik Hindi through their writings. However, when it used to come to writing poetry, Harishchandra used Braj dialect. Still for prose writing, Khadiboli was preferred. Even the magazines and newspapers used Khadiboli and thus it became a popular dialect amongst the educated class. The major writers who emerged during this era include Maithili Sharan Gupt, Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, Gopala Sharan Sinha and RN Tripathi.

However, it was Munshi Premchand who brought realism and progressive movement in Hindi literature. He gave a new direction to fiction which earlier was all about magical stories and religious epics. After Premchand, other important Hindi writers of this era include Ajenya, Jainendra Kumar and Phaneshwar Nath Renu.

Many more articles on Hindi languages are available at http://www.indianscripts.com/Articles.html

Journey of Hindi Language

Journey of  Hindi Language

Written by Indianscripts (www.indianscripts.com). Hindi is one of the many important languages that people can be found speaking mostly in Asian sub continent. Though, Hindi is the national language of India, Hindi speaking population is split all over the world.

The ancestral roots of Hindi are same as that of other European languages that even include English. The parent language of Hindi, according to the linguists, remains Indo-European, which persisted in the Central Asia. Here we are talking about the era of 5000 Century BC. This is the main reason other than the influence of British Raj in India that one can find many words in Hindi which have an equivalent in English language. To name a few, coolie, thug, loot, pundit, tom-tom etc.

Though, when it comes to belonging, Hindi language comes solely from Sanskrit. The classical Sanskrit is what it is believed to be initiated from. However, over a period of time, it acquired different dialects of Sanskrit only. The script in which Hindi is written is Dev Nagari. In fact, many of the Indian languages share their root from the same.

One may find the basic vocabulary of Hindi in Sanskrit as well and it is interesting to note that Urdu language too relates to Hindi. This relation is based upon their vocabulary and grammar which are more or less the same. In fact, there is a huge debate over linguists’ point of view regarding similarities of Urdu and Hindi and thus their being the same language. They believe that it is only the political scenario in India and Pakistan that separates the two languages which were spoken as Hindustani earlier in the secular India before partition.

Hindi language saw its development sometime around the colonial period alone. All the government offices during that era started having Hindi cultivated by the Britishers. Thereafter, the employment of Hindi language began in the literature and literary works that included poetry, prose and even novels. One could see many nationalists working for independence using Hindi language as the source and talking to the common man through newspapers, pamphlets etc.

Hindi got standardized basically after India got independence from foreign rule. The Indian government took over the task of standardization and by the year 1954 it was well completed. The Hindi grammar was developed by a committee that was set up by the government only. The very committee came up in the year 1958 with Basic Modern Hindi Grammar, which is being used today. Translation of literature from English into Hindi and Hindi to English was encouraged for knowledge enrichment.

The same committee also worked upon standardizing the spellings in the language and Central Hindi Directorate with cooperation of Ministry of Education and Culture came up with Devanagari script standardization. This had a great impact over the language and its usage because uniformity came in the character shapes and even in writing them. They also introduced scientific ways of scribing the alphabets. Also, diacritics were incorporated in order to express sounds in a better manner.

Thus, on January 26th, 1965 Hindi emerged as the Indian national language and the Constitution of India recognized as many as 21 other languages along with it.  This article waswritten by Indianscripts,  (www.indianscripts.com ) India’s leading Hindi translation services.

Effective Online And Offline Advertising For Freelance Translators

Advertising your freelance translator services is necessary, but it can also be expensive and time consuming unless you select the right combination of online and offline advertising methods.
There are many ways you can market yourself as a freelance translator, but you need to be clear on what you are trying to accomplish; if you want to attract new customers, how many you handle? This is very important with online advertising, where your message has the potential to reach millions of people at the same time.
Instead of aiming your message at the entire range of clients for your freelance translator services, create your advertising on a narrowly defined segment of the market, i.e., import/export companies.
Online you can use graphics and text in a Weblog or blog to deliver your advertising message. The structure and format of blogs are more effective than the traditional website because they are designed for multiple users. This invites interaction and exposes your message to people who are interested in learning more about what a freelance translator services.
On the other hand, a printed business card that includes your online information is one of the most effective advertising tools you can have as a freelance translator. You can encourage your contacts to visit your website by offering a discount to services ordered online.
Press releases can be distributed on and offline as well. However, press releases must be newsworthy in order to make it to publication, i.e., you are offering a seminar about the value of freelance translator services for businesses.
· organize a time and place for the seminar
· print business cards with the information
· post an announcement on your blog about the event
· write a press release about the seminar for distribution
You can use all of these tools together to create an effective campaign for marketing your freelance translator services.