Guajarati is a beautiful language and a mention of Guajarati brings alive the memories of Mahatma Gandhi and his famous “Vaishno Vachan”. This Indo- Aryan language has its derivation from Western Rajasthani and is spoken in not only the state of Gujarat but also in Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.
One can easily divide Gujarati as Old Gujarati, Middle Gujarati and Modern Gujarati, which is what the present world is speaking. If you too have recently joined the Guajarati fan club and want to improve your vocabulary of the language, then this article would turn out to be the best source for sure.
When we talk about Modern Gujarati, the basic categories that we should know include tadbhav, tatsam and loan words.
If you look at the meaning of Tatsam literally, it means “same as that.” We should remember that Sanskrit language transformed in Indo Aryan of Middle age eventually. Thus, you will find many words that resemble the Sanskrit words. They are as it is employed in Gujarati and mean the same thing as well. In fact, Gujarati vocabulary is enriched by such words which are technical and formal in nature. For instance, lekhak which means writer remains lakhnār and word vijetā meaning winner stays jītnār in Gujarati. In order to recognize such words, you can see the markings and inflections on top of them.
Tadbhav: Nature of that
Gujarati has descended from the ancient Indian language Sanskrit and thus in Tadbhav category of words; one may find words of Sanskrit origin. Thus, these words have over the time transformed to provide people with the same character as that of modern Indo- Aryan language of modern times.
The basic difference between the Tatsam and Tadbhav words is that while the earlier are technical and formal, latter are words that may be used every day and thus are non- technical. To learn the spoken vernacular of Gujarati, these words are quite essential.
One should however remember that while speaking Gujarati, Tatsam and Tadbhav can be employed simultaneously.
Videśī Words: Loan Words
The above mentioned two categories are entirely different from this one which consists of words of foreign origin including, English, Persian, Arabic, Turkish and Portuguese. Since India had Muslim rule for quite some time and they were a Persian speaking clad, the Indian languages had seen employment of many such words. Gujarati too could not escape conjugation of these words and thus there are many etymologically foreign words called loan words in Gujarati language.
The loan words were eventually indigenized and the output are terms like dāvo which means claim, natījo meaning result, fāydo meaning benefit, and hamlo which means attack. It is interesting to note that all above mentioned words have a masculine gender while there are words which are neutral as well, e.g., khānũ – compartment.
Over the years times have seen a big contrast in everything and languages do not lag behind. The same holds true for Gujarati language too and thus it is essential for any Gujarati lover to learn the vocabulary first to improvise the language.