A BRIEF HISTORY OF EVOLUTION OF KANNADA SCRIPTS

 

The Kannada script or the Kannada Lipi is basically derived from the ancient script of Brahmi.

 

There was an off-shoot from the original Brahmi script during the early 3rd century BC; this off-shoot gradually was developed as the script for Proto-Kannada. During the 4th century AD this script developed into the Kadamba script which again was derived as the Old Kannada script that existed till the 10th century AD. It is this Old Kannada script that is the mother of the modern day Kannada and Telugu scripts. So, it can be said that both Telugu and Kannada scripts have evolved from the same base of the ancient Brahmi script.

 

 

 

Kannada script is also used to write some of the other South Indian languages such as Kodava, Konkani and Tulu. Apart from the Devanagri script it is the script used to denote the second highest number of other languages. There is a historic evidence of Kannada being used in writing Badaga language of the Nilgiri region and also the Konkani in the Goa region where the script was named as Goykanadi. The present day Telugu script was derived from the Old Kannada script between the 11th and 14th century AD.

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The Process of Medical Translation

Medical translations typically involve the translation of clinical, regulatory, technical and marketing documentation, software related documents or training courses for healthcare, medical device or pharmaceutical fields.

 

Countries around the globe require the translation of literature and labeling related to medical equipment or pharmaceuticals to be sold sold into their national languages.

 

In addition, documentation for clinical trials frequently has to be translated to allow local clinicians, patients and their representatives to read and subsequently understand them. The same applies to regulatory approval submissions.

 

Because medical texts are highly sensitive, technical and regulated, translators have to have specific training and extensive knowledge of medical and technical terms and procedures on top of their linguistic skills.

 

Because emphasis on high quality is very high due to the potential life and death implications of medical texts, translating agencies typically conform to at least one of a variety of standards, including the quality system standard (ISO 9001), the European standard of translation vendor quality (EN 15038) and/ or the standard of manufacture of medical equipment and devices (ISO 13485).

 

To ensure the translation of all medical texts are accurate and in perfect compliance with these high standards, translation takes place in a set of steps.

 

After the text to be translated from the source format, it is converted from the source language, let’s say English, into the target language, such as Urdu, for example.

 

This is done by highly trained translators using a variety of specialist tools and translation memory, a type of glossary used by translators to ensure the style of documents remains consistent.

 

The translated text is then read and edited by a second expert to ensure approved terminology, style and tone have been adhered to. Following this, the text is put into the required format, such as HTML, a word document, PDF, an e-learning program, etc.

 

This is followed by the document being proofread, ensuring that spelling, punctuation, page and line breaks are correct and no text has been corrupted. Finally, a so-called in-country review takes place.

 

This essentially means a native speaker of the language the text has been translated into reviews the document to ensure all specifications, product specifics or therapy specifics have been met correctly.

 

Our highly skilled experts adhere to these essential guidelines whenever they translate texts fro English into languages such as Bengali, Hindi, Gujarati, Urdu or Marathi; Telegu, Tamil, Malayalam, Oriya, Nepali, Kannada or Punjabi. www.indianscripts.com

 

 

The documents we specialize in translating include everything from brochures and packaging labels through user manuals, software and training documentation, medical questionnaires and glossaries of medical terms to patient information and informed consent forms.

 

In fact, any type of biological, clinical,  toxicological or pharmaceutical documents will be dealt with according to the same strict guidelines by our highly trained professional translators to ensure first class, accurate translations are produced at all times.

 

Don’t leave accuracy to chance – get a professional translating agency for your Indic language translation of important medical documents. It could, after all, save lives. www.indianscripts.com

 

Medical Translation and Healthcare Industries

Accurate, effective communication is of utmost importance within the health care industry. Errors in the translation of documents, such as user manuals, patient information or medical questionnaires can literally make the difference between life and death.

This is why medical and other translations and localizations within all areas of the healthcare industry have to be consistently accurate.

When it comes to dealing with medical equipment of any kind, physician related services and general well being of patients, translations into Indian languages, for example, have to be culturally appropriate, clear and both sensitively and carefully handled.

Mistranslations or misinterpretations of therms and phrases can lead to very serious consequences. A badly translated informed consent form, for instance, could lead to a patient not being as informed as they should be about a procedure to be undertaken, and subsequently going on to sue a medical practitioner or hospital for misinformation or even malpractice.

This, of course, is not acceptable under any circumstances. For this reason, doctors will often use common, rather than medical terms in such forms. It allows a patient to clearly understand what is happening. A translator has to make sure such nuances are kept within the translation.

Legal requirements also need to be translated exactly, as opposed to being loosely interpreted. A a matter of fact, specific laws and recommendations relating to healthcare, privacy and language requirements have to be taken into consideration when translating medical documents to ensure appropriate localization and assistance for those living in other countries without speaking the language very well.

We, http://www.indianscripts.com ,  have the expertise to ensure that your documents will at all times be in compliance with these laws and recommendations. Our translators are trained and experienced in dealing with medical translations of all types.

Our company specializes in in particular in producing first class translations of patient information, informed consent forms, medical glossaries and medical questionnaires, as well as all kinds of biological, clinical, pharmaceutical and toxicological documents, software and equipment user manuals, brochures and packaging labels.

We are able to translate documents from English into 12 Indian languages, including Urdu, Telegu, Tamil, Punjabi, Oriya, and Nepali; Marathi, Malayalam, Kannada, Hindi, Gujarati and Bengali. http://www.indianscripts.com

Whether you require a brochure or packaging label to be localized for marketing a product in a Gujarati speaking area or whether you need patient information to be translated into Tamil to help a patient understand what is happening, our experts will ensure it is done perfectly and in compliance with all relevant laws.

The importance of the correctness of medical translations with regards to every aspect of healthcare can not be stressed enough. It has to be right at all times to ensure no lives are being put at risk through what seemed to be just minor errors at the time.

Do not take the risk of getting it wrong by allowing a bilingual staff member to do the translation. Get a quote from us now and see for yourself how cost-effective getting it right can be.

Influence of Foreign Culture on Kannada Literature

Kannada as a modern language has been influenced a range of foreign cultures and literary works as well. B.M.Srikantiah – (1884-1946) (popularly known as BMSri and referred to as Kannadada Kanva) is considered as the “Father of Modern Kannada Literature”. It was him who made a call upon the contemporary writers to move away from the archaic forms of writing and to adhere to a more original form of writing. The result was the beginning of a new era in the history of modern Kannada literature. The new era is called as – Navodaya literally meaning ‘the new sunrise.’ During this period there was a profound foreign influence on Kannada literature, the literary forms such as short stories, novels, plays, literary criticisms and poems came under the new light of foreign culture and literature. In spite of this influence we can see a genuine creative urge in these literary works.

 

As one of the oldest surviving languages the incidences of foreign influence on Kannada are not only immense but are noteworthy as well. The most notable foreign influences were experienced during the end of the 19th century and the start of the early 20th century. Notable Kannada writers responded to the call of B.M. Srikantaiah and produced quality literature that was primarily based on modern concepts and thoughts. Literary works by Bankim Chandra Chatterji (Bengali) and Harinarayana Apte (Marathi) were readily translated to Kannada by writers such as B.Venkatacharya and Galaganatha. The contemporary Kannada literature came under further foreign influence after the establishment of a printing press and a publishing house at Mangalore by the Basel Mission Organization. The first authenticated Kannada- English dictionary was published even before the start of 20th century as a result of some dedicated work by Reverend Ferdinand Kittel (1832-1903), the German missionary worker.

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Engdi – the new name of Hinglish and more on sanganak and kunjipatal in shudh Hindi

The government has finally read the writing on the wall that Hinglish is the way forward, even in official communication. A more accurate fusion word for the government’s interpretation, of course, would be Engdi as the idea is to let English words leach into Hindi communication, not the obverse version that has become the lingua franca of the bindaas generation. The language of technology is primarily English and translations can be tedious, tortuous and, often, completely incomprehensible.

It makes more sense, for instance, to write computer and keyboard in the Devanagari script in sarkari correspondence than insist on calling them sanganak and kunjipatal in shudh Hindi and risk befuddlement at the opposite end. The myriad of ‘foreign’ words that have already merged into the Hindi mainstream – from police to ticket to button – show that simplicity wins. By the same logic, the newer English words had to be allowed officially to permeate Hindi, as it is already happening everywhere else.

Hopefully, this reality check in official exchanges will be extended to other government-public interfaces.

Designations such as junior engineer and clerk-typist are certainly easier on most tongues than kanisht abhiyanta or lipik-sah-tankak, and scientific terms remain best enunciated in English despite the efforts of the Commission for Scientific and Technical Terminology – paradoxically translated as Vaigyanik Tatha Takneeki Shabdavali Aayog – set up in 1960 to find or devise Hindi equivalents for disciplines as diverse as sericulture and nuclear power. Read the whole post here http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2011-10-14/news/30279304_1_hindi-translations-english

INFLUENCE OF SANSKRIT ON KANNADA LANGUAGE

Sanskrit is often referred to as the mother of all languages; the fact that Kannada is laden with a fair amount of Sanskrit words could lead to a misconception that Kannada too must have been derived from Sanskrit. Linguistic researches have proved it beyond doubt that the origin of Kannada has nothing to do with Sanskrit. Sanskrit is an Indo-Aryan language whereas Kannada is a Dravidian language. The areas of their origin are far away from each other. Yet, Sanskrit has an astounding influence on Kannada.

The prosody, poetics and grammar in Kannada are all based on the models of Sanskrit. The traditional scholarship which was basically inclined towards Vedic hegemony has brought out this situation. Early Kannada literature was independent of Sanskrit literature, later on scholars and patronized poets themselves began to hold Sanskrit and Vedic texts in high esteem.

Kaviraajamaarga (the main pathway for a poet) the first available written text in Kannada     (9th century), appraises the works of Sanskrit writers such as Kalidasa, Baana, Bhatta Narayana and Bharavi even before the works of contemporary Kannada writers. It calls upon the contemporary Kannada writers to emulate the standards of Sanskrit writers. Pampa, Ponna and Ranna – one of the three earliest known Kannada poets (940 AD- 990 AD) are referred to as Ratnatrayaru (the three jewels) of early Kannada literature. These poets are considered as pioneers of early Kannada literature. Even though they produced a unique literature known as Champu form their works are often based on earlier Sanskrit literature. Pampa’s Pampa Bhaaratha or Vikramaarjunavijayam and Aadipurana, Ponna’s Ramakathe, Ranna’s Gadhaayuddha are based on stories of the Ramayana and Mahabharata. We can see that many a great Kannada literature was developed on the foundations of Sanskrit literature.

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Kannada Literature – an Unbroken Literary History of Thousand Years

Kannada is one of the oldest surviving languages in the world. It is the official and administrative language of Karnataka. This is the language primarily spoken in the state of Karnataka; its native speakers are called Kannadigas. The total speakers worldwide amounts to about 50 million in numbers, making it one among the top thirty most spoken languages in the world. It is one of the scheduled languages of India and one of the four officially recognized classical languages of India.

While studying the history of literary Kannada we don’t come across sudden bright flashes here and there and a period of lull in between. The literary history of Kannada is continuous and has maintained its steady flow through the ages. Early Kannada while maintaining its Dravidian spirit has exchanged many ideas with Tamil and also has imbibed itself with the richness of Sanskrit as a language under its heavy influence.

The recognized epigraphy of Kannada dates back to the 3rd century BC and that of literary history to the early 6th century AD during the rule of Gangas. A rock edict of Emperor Ashoka at Brahmagiri has many Kannada words inscribed on it. Halmidi inscription of 450 AD clearly manifests the strength Kannada has acquired as an established language. Bruhathkathe is the literary work by Durvineetha, a poet in the Ganga court in about 600 AD; unfortunately the work is not available now. Literary works such as Kavirajamarga has laid the foundation for the forthcoming literary works as early as 850 AD. Vaddaradhane by Shivakotyacharya in about 900 AD, excellent works by the three jewels of early Kannada literature Pampa, Ponna and Ranna such as Adipurana, Pampa Bharatha, Shanthipurana, Ramakathe, Gadhayuddha, and Parashurama Charita and Karnatabhashabhushana, a treatise on Kannada grammar by Nagavarma 2nd , Shabdamanidarpana yet another work on Kannada grammar by Keshiraja are spanned in between 950 AD and 1250 AD. Harihara and RaghavankaRead more here