How to read and write Kannada in computer?

The myth that since computer being a western invention; a western language like English is the best that would fit in to it has perished a long ago. A whole lot of other languages could be used in computers now. Many of the computer program writers in Kannada are Kannadigas, most of them are either from Bangalore or from other parts of the state. This has benefited a lot in coining some new software in Kannada language. The Government of Karnataka, Kannada Abhivriddhi Pradhikara and Kannada Ganaka Parishat have joined hands with these programmers having a concern for Kannada and have played a prominent part in scribing computer software programs that have greatly helped using Kannada in Computer. Kannada is now being used in computers for day to day regular works of different departments of the state government of Karnataka.


Designing the Kannada keyboard format and formation of Kannada Kacheri and Kannada Saurabha software is notable. Baraha and Nudi softwares have eased the usage of Kannada in our computers. It is appreciable that the authorities are striving hard to strengthen Kannada as a computer language.

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Kannada is the principal and administrative language in Karnataka, India. It is also spoken in the neighboring states of Maharastra, Goa, Andra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. There are a considerable number of Kannada speakers in the UK, USA, UAE and Canada and in Australia too; the number is estimated to reach nearly 50 million. It is one of the 30 languages in the world in terms of the largest user base. The script is also known as Kannada which seems to have been derived from Kharosti and Brahmi, the ancient Indian scripts.

The speakers are primarily Hindus, a lot of Muslims and Christians in the state use Kannada at least as their secondary language. The language has a diversified usage and is spoken in at least 20 different identified dialects within Karnataka. The accent and style differs a lot when we move from one place to the other. The literary language is fairly uniform through out the state and used mostly in formal activities. more,-Holiya-and-Urali.html


Kannada is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and has an antiquity of not less than two thousand years. Kannada is one among the first 30 most spoken languages in the world; spoken mostly in the state of Karnataka, India and by more than 50 million speakers worldwide.

Kannada belongs to the Southern Dravidian Language family, usually the history of Kannada language can be divided into three main periods as follows.

1)      Halegannada: meaning Proto-Kannada period ranging between the 6th and 11th centuries.

The Proto-Kannada period is preceded by the Pre-old Kannada dates back to the 1st or 2nd century AD. Only some fragmented references could be made of this period and the recorded details are mostly obscure. Over 30000 inscriptions have been identified having old Kannada written on them, the earliest being the inscription by Kongunivarma of Ganga dynasty (about 250 AD) in the old Mysore region.The Halegannada period marks a beginning in about 450 AD; the reference could be made of Halmidi inscription where there is a citation of Kannada being used as an official language. Apart from rock inscriptions references could be made of copper plate inscriptions and inscriptions on coins. Amoghavarsha Nrupatunga, the famous Rastrakuta ruler’s Kavirajamarga (850 AD), the triplet metered poetic work of Kappe Aryabhata (700 AD), Vaddaradhane (900 AD) by Shivakotyacharya are the well known literary works of the period. Pampa, Ranna and Ponna are the major poets.

Nadugannada – meaning Middle Kannada period ranging between…..

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3 Ways to Improve your Gujarati Vocabulary

Article written by Indianscripts,  Language Translation Provider ( who can be contacted at

Guajarati is a beautiful language and a mention of Guajarati brings alive the memories of Mahatma Gandhi and his famous “Vaishno Vachan”. This Indo- Aryan language has its derivation from Western Rajasthani and is spoken in not only the state of Gujarat but also in Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.

One can easily divide Gujarati as Old Gujarati, Middle Gujarati and Modern Gujarati, which is what the present world is speaking. If you too have recently joined the Guajarati fan club and want to improve your vocabulary of the language, then this article would turn out to be the best source for sure.

When we talk about Modern Gujarati, the basic categories that we should know include tadbhav, tatsam and loan words.

Tatsam: Same

If you look at the meaning of Tatsam literally, it means “same as that.” We should remember that Sanskrit language transformed in Indo Aryan of Middle age eventually. Thus, you will find many words that resemble the Sanskrit words. They are as it is employed in Gujarati and mean the same thing as well. In fact, Gujarati vocabulary is enriched by such words which are technical and formal in nature. For instance, lekhak which means writer remains lakhnār and word vijetā meaning winner stays jītnār in Gujarati. In order to recognize such words, you can see the markings and inflections on top of them.

Tadbhav: Nature of that

Gujarati has descended from the ancient Indian language Sanskrit and thus in Tadbhav category of words; one may find words of Sanskrit origin. Thus, these words have over the time transformed to provide people with the same character as that of modern Indo- Aryan language of modern times.

The basic difference between the Tatsam and Tadbhav words is that while the earlier are technical and formal, latter are words that may be used every day and thus are non- technical. To learn the spoken vernacular of Gujarati, these words are quite essential.

One should however remember that while speaking Gujarati, Tatsam and Tadbhav can be employed simultaneously.

Videśī Words: Loan Words

The above mentioned two categories are entirely different from this one which consists of words of foreign origin including, English, Persian, Arabic, Turkish and Portuguese. Since India had Muslim rule for quite some time and they were a Persian speaking clad, the Indian languages had seen employment of many such words. Gujarati too could not escape conjugation of these words and thus there are many etymologically foreign words called loan words in Gujarati language.

Article written by Indianscripts,  Language Translation Provider ( who can be contacted at

The loan words were eventually indigenized and the output are terms like dāvo which means claim, natījo meaning result, fāydo  meaning benefit, and hamlo which means attack. It is interesting to note that all above mentioned words have a masculine gender while there are words which are neutral as well, e.g., khānũ – compartment.

Over the years times have seen a big contrast in everything and languages do not lag behind. The same holds true for Gujarati language too and thus it is essential for any Gujarati lover to learn the vocabulary first to improvise the language.

Article written by Indianscripts,  Language Translation Provider ( who can be contacted at

Hindi Literature in different times

The Hindi language descends from the classical Sanskrit language. Though there may be seen some other language influences over it as well, which includes Arabic, Turkish, Dravidian, Farsi, English and Portuguese. The expression made in Hindi language cannot be competed and the way emotions can be conveyed through simplicity in Hindi, no other language can be so rational and exact.

Hindi literary scene involves lots of verses and overall has an oral expression. The initial hindi prose works were written by Devaki Nandan Khatri and was a fantasy novel called Chandrakanta. Before that, the literary works were generally recited in the form of poetry or songs. This is the reason why there are no major records of earlier works. However non-Hindi speakers can get a taste through English to Hindi translation. There are many literary translations available and is one of India’s leading translation providers from English into Hindi.

Bhakti Kaal

The medieval times were one of the best for Hindi literature. The poets used Avadhi and Brij Bhasha in their compositions as dialects and one can experience a lot of Bhakti compositions during this period. There used to be long poems, mainly consisted of epics. The two schools during this time: Nirguna School, which does not believed in the form of God and the Saguna School, which worshipped the various incarnations of Vishnu, both were at their best.

RitiKavya Kaal (Modern Period)

This was also known as Ritismarga Kavya period and forms a major element of Hindi literature. This modern era in Hindi literature developed with British, Maratha and Afghans ruling the Central India. Initially, the learned spoke only Braj and Avadhi which too lost their prestige over a period of time. The main language used for literature became Kari and it was during 18th century that some of the greatest literature was developed, eg, Gangabhatt’s Mahima, Ramprasad Niranjani’s Yogavashishtha, Jatmal’s Gorabadal and the likes of Mandovar Ka Varnan.

Once the East India Company incepted Calcutta’s Fort William College, there was no limit to the development that Hindi language and literature saw. The college’s president ensured that enough books were written in Urdu and Hindi languages and thus he hired professors especially for the same. Some of the examples of books written there include Munshi Inshallah Khan’s Rani Ketaki Ki Kahani, Sadasukhlal’s Sukhsagar, Sadal Mishra’s Naasiketopaakhyan and Lallolal’s Premsagar.

It is clear in Indian history that this was the era of general public speaking Hindustani. The learned Muslims used Urdu and the educated Hindus used Khadiboli to distinguish themselves from the rest. The only difference between the two was that Khadiboli included Sanskrit vocabulary while Urdu has Persian dominated vocabulary.

Bhartendu Harishchand and Dayanand Saraswati popularized Sahityik Hindi through their writings. However, when it used to come to writing poetry, Harishchandra used Braj dialect. Still for prose writing, Khadiboli was preferred. Even the magazines and newspapers used Khadiboli and thus it became a popular dialect amongst the educated class. The major writers who emerged during this era include Maithili Sharan Gupt, Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, Gopala Sharan Sinha and RN Tripathi.

However, it was Munshi Premchand who brought realism and progressive movement in Hindi literature. He gave a new direction to fiction which earlier was all about magical stories and religious epics. After Premchand, other important Hindi writers of this era include Ajenya, Jainendra Kumar and Phaneshwar Nath Renu.

Many more articles on Hindi languages are available at

How to write Jophola in Bengali using Unicode font

Jophola in Bengali or Bangla is something I always found difficult to write when using unicode font in my PC.
recently after some internet search I found a solution.
Jophola is often used to transcribe sounds foreign to Bengali.

Jophola forms a conjunct ligature with the preceding consonant.
Here is an example how to write Jophola.

First open  the Bengali keyboard layout

Windows Keyboard Layouts

Choose a keyboard below to view its layouts.


If you use a pop-up blocker, please update your allowable list to include this Web site.

To see different keyboard states, move the mouse over state keys such as Shift, Caps or AltGr. You can also lock or unlock those keys by clicking them.

then see the keyboard here

As seen from above to write মুখ্য in মুখ্যমন্ত্রী (i,e in Bengali Mukhyomontri-chief minister) you have press the following keys in your keyboard

C ম





Any questions please ask me here in comments section.

Want translations into Bengali? visit

Kannada Literature – an Unbroken Literary History of Thousand Years

Kannada is one of the oldest surviving languages in the world. It is the official and administrative language of Karnataka. This is the language primarily spoken in the state of Karnataka; its native speakers are called Kannadigas. The total speakers worldwide amounts to about 50 million in numbers, making it one among the top thirty most spoken languages in the world. It is one of the scheduled languages of India and one of the four officially recognized classical languages of India.

While studying the history of literary Kannada we don’t come across sudden bright flashes here and there and a period of lull in between. The literary history of Kannada is continuous and has maintained its steady flow through the ages. Early Kannada while maintaining its Dravidian spirit has exchanged many ideas with Tamil and also has imbibed itself with the richness of Sanskrit as a language under its heavy influence.

The recognized epigraphy of Kannada dates back to the 3rd century BC and that of literary history to the early 6th century AD during the rule of Gangas. A rock edict of Emperor Ashoka at Brahmagiri has many Kannada words inscribed on it. Halmidi inscription of 450 AD clearly manifests the strength Kannada has acquired as an established language. Bruhathkathe is the literary work by Durvineetha, a poet in the Ganga court in about 600 AD; unfortunately the work is not available now. Literary works such as Kavirajamarga has laid the foundation for the forthcoming literary works as early as 850 AD. Vaddaradhane by Shivakotyacharya in about 900 AD, excellent works by the three jewels of early Kannada literature Pampa, Ponna and Ranna such as Adipurana, Pampa Bharatha, Shanthipurana, Ramakathe, Gadhayuddha, and Parashurama Charita and Karnatabhashabhushana, a treatise on Kannada grammar by Nagavarma 2nd , Shabdamanidarpana yet another work on Kannada grammar by Keshiraja are spanned in between 950 AD and 1250 AD. Harihara and RaghavankaRead more here