RELATIONSHIP OF KANNADA WITH OTHER LANGUAGES:

 

Linguists opine that there at least 5000 languages being used in different parts of the world, in India itself we find nearly about 1000 different languages. Some languages have a huge user base exceeding a hundred million while some others have only a few hundred speakers. A language cannot always be independent or remain static. Most of the flourishing languages of today have undergone drastic modifications during the course of their growth, have gained from their interaction with the other languages, have borrowed and lent words with other languages that have come into their contact and have stood the ravages of time. Such an interaction builds a relationship among the different languages.

 

 

 

Kannada too has a relationship with many of the languages that have come into an interaction with it. This relationship could be due to the three major factors as follow-

 

1. Geographical factors: Geographically Kannada speaking region is covered by regions speaking Marathi in the north, Tamil and Malayalam in the south, Telugu in the east and Konkani and Tulu in the west. People in these regions have to interact with each other in their daily activities and thus have influenced the languages of each other.

 

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Kannada Literature – an Unbroken Literary History of Thousand Years

Kannada is one of the oldest surviving languages in the world. It is the official and administrative language of Karnataka. This is the language primarily spoken in the state of Karnataka; its native speakers are called Kannadigas. The total speakers worldwide amounts to about 50 million in numbers, making it one among the top thirty most spoken languages in the world. It is one of the scheduled languages of India and one of the four officially recognized classical languages of India.

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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE SPOKEN AND WRITTEN FORMS OF KANNADA LANGUAGE

A language usually has 4 basic and different features in its usage. They are as follow;

1) Listening or understanding; 2) Speaking or expressing; 3) Reading and 4) Writing.

The first two features are primarily concerned with the spoken form where as the other two are concerned with the written form. Every language has the first two basic characteristics and a language with the script has all the four characteristics. Kannada has adapted all 4 of the above mentioned characteristic features in its usage.

Kannada is basically phonetic in nature; still there is a considerable difference between the spoken and written language forms. There are at least 20 variant dialects that can be recognized and are distributed among various geographical regions of the state; where as the written form is quite standard and is distinctly uniform in its usage through out. In short the colloquial form is area specific where as the written form is quite unique. In a country like India; the people who use spoken form outnumber the people using written form at any given time and place. The literate and educated can use all the 4 features of their language; others use the first 2 features. Examine these differences between the written and spoken forms in Kannada.

Written form

Spoken form

Shivamogga. (the name of a city)

Shimoga, Shimoggi , Simoga , Simoggi etc.

Adike. (Beetle nut)

Adke, Adki.

Avanu. (He)

Ava, Avnu

Avaru barali. (Let them come.)

Avru barli.

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